Crime

This page is about crime committed by confirmed male-born transgender people or by men taking advantage by claiming to be transgender.

Why have such a page? Are male-born trans people more likely to commit crime than other males? Not as far as I’m aware. And if their testosterone level decreases as a result of treatment, their rate of crime may be lower, so I’m told. In fact, I’m aware of research that shows the rate of crime doesn’t decrease as a result of transition. I’m also aware of research that shows it does. (Nobody, so far as I know, is trying to suggest that all transgender people are criminals, and I don’t know why this accusation ever gets made by anyone.)

More importantly, I’m aware that the rate of violent and sexual crimes committed by male trans people is much higher than the rate for such crimes committed by women – including those who transition because they identify as men. And many of the sexual crimes committed by transfolk involve a penis, which is something women don’t have. Nevertheless, they are reported as having been committed by women and few things make me angrier than seeing headlines falsely alleging that a woman has been charged with rape or a police press release wrongly stating that a woman was arrested for assaulting me when it was quite clearly and obviously a man. I kept an eye on the rape case and felt pathetically grateful that, when it finally went to court many months later, all the press coverage were referring to the defendant – who has 42 previous convictions! – as a transgender woman. I started to think we might be making progress. Then I read that a woman had murdered her wife. Both perpetrator and victim were born male but the headline calls them ‘women’? That’s what I call “dark and insidious”.

One major concern and the main reason for highlighting violent crimes committed by trans people is that there are rapists in women’s prisons. But how how many trans people are actually outside committing serious violent and/or sex crimes? It’s impossibe to know if you don’t have access to full and accurate information for every country in the world and I don’t know of anyone who does. I had collected several reports of such crimes before discovering the excellent Trans Crime UK site which, at the time of writing, is the target of attempts by trans activists to get it closed down. For this reason, I’ve decided to publish the links I’ve collected and to add further links as new stories become available, while deferring to the other site as a far better and fuller resource, at least as far as the UK is concerned.

Below are the reports I’ve collected from the last few years (years refer to when the story linked to appears, not necessarily when the crime took place) and at the bottom of the page a rogues’ gallery of older cases lifted from elsewhere.

Update: 09.09.18 I’ve moved the section on Prison to a separate page here.

Added: 18.03.20 Check out this Tumblr blog for lists of various crimes committed by men, some of whom are trans-identifying.

Spotted on Twitter 04.11.19  Should these transgender rapists, paedophiles, sexual offenders and violent criminals be allowed to self-ID their way into women’s prisons? A thread.

Contrary to popular rumour

Transgender homicide rate ‘remarkably low’ despite cries of ‘national epidemic’ Washington Times 08.12.19

 

Sex crimes

Another peak trans moment

The first isn’t the worst in that at least Hauxwell’s victims were adults but I’m starting with it because it was one of my peak trans moments. It was the first report I ever read – back in March 2017 – in which a newspaper refers to a rapist throughout as “she”, even though it also says that Craig Hauxwell aka Lisa Hauxwell,  “could be living as a man or a woman”.

2017 England: Police hunting on-the-run rapist living as man and woman  Lancashire Telegraph

“A convicted sex offender who has been on the run for several months and has been living as a man and a woman featured during a national Crimewatch appeal. Lisa Hauxwell, 48, was sentenced in her absence to 14 years in prison last year for two rapes and seven indecent assaults that took place between 2001 and 2002 in the Newton Aycliffe area.”

When Hauxwell was caught he was found to have been living as a man after all. I presume but don’t actually know that he is serving his sentence in a men’s prison. Hauxwell may not genuinely identify as trans but this case surely highlights the dangers of people being allowed to legally self-identify.

 

Here are other stories in date order, newest at the top:

England 2020: BBC fails to mention that Blackpool “woman” who accessed child abuse images in hospital bed is actually a man BBC 14.07.20

The BBC’s failure to report gender identity accurately James Kirkup in The Spectator 17.07.20

New Zealand 2020: Doctor, Now ‘Transgender’, Denied Parole After Drugging, Sexually Assaulting Patients: David Lim Women Are Human 28.02.20

New Zealand 2020: Man, Transgender, Admits to Kidnap & Torture of 3 Women, Stabbing of 1 with “HIV” Hypodermic Needle: Blaine (né Wayne) Maney Women Are Human 29.01.20

Canada 2020: Dartmouth woman awaits sentencing for sexually assaulting caregiver Chronicle Herald  24.01.20

USA 2019: Taxpayers Must Pay for Convicted Pedophile’s Gender Reassignment Surgery: Court 25.08.19

New Zealand 2019: Extensive supervision order granted to strictly monitor ‘high risk’ HIV positive recidivist child sex offender NZHerald 20.08.19

England 2019: Jailed: Trans woman carried out indecent act in Ludlow garden wearing nothing but furry boots Shropshire Star 15.08.19

New Zealand 2019: Paedophile who had sex with young boys while knowing he had HIV is set to be FREED from prison – despite admitting he’d work as a prostitute if released and spread the virus

England 2019: Sheffield newspaper lies about sex of paedophile found with over 1,000 indecent images of children The Star 15.07.19

USA 2019: Transgender woman charged with assaulting woman in Raleigh bar 

Pakistan 2019:  Male Transgender & Trans Activist Removed As Women’s March Organizer Over Child Rape, Threat Allegations Women Are Human 01.06.19

England 2019: Transgender ex-soldier had child rape images Plymouth Herald 20.05.19

England 2019: [Trans] Woman attacks people with hammer outside KFC in shocking road rage video Liverpool Echo 10.05.19

England 2019: Northants transgender sex offender used fake identity to speak to woman on Facebook Northampton Chronicle 29.03.19

Canada 2019: Transgender Sex Offender Who Targets Girls Under 8-Yrs-Old is Released into Community: Madilyn Harks (née Matthew Harks) Women are Human 23.03.19

Canada 2019: Convicted pedophile back in custody after federal government revokes supervision order Global News 29.03.19

Canada 2019: Vancouver Island man who secretly filmed woman on toilet gets conditional discharge CBC 14.02.19

USA 2019: Transgender woman arrested accused of sexually assaulting teen in Walmart bathroom KXII 13.02.19

Scotland 2019: Mum of supermarket toilet sex assault victim warns freed attacker could strike again Dundee Courier

On the same story: Female-only spaces ‘must be given greater protection’ The Times 06.02.19

Canada 2018: Transgender woman gets 18-month sentence for sexually assaulting daughter The Star 30.10.19

USA 2018: Transgender Proponent of Mixed-Sex Showers, Locker Rooms Raped Deaf Woman: Johanna Wolf Women are Human 04.01.19

USA 2018: Three Men – Including Transgender – Sexually Enslave, Torture 14-Year-Old Girl Women are Human 03.7.18

England 2018: Male cop jailed for online child sex offences has been released and is now a woman Sun 12.11.18

England 2018: Transgender prisoner born a male who sexually assaulted female inmates after being jailed for rape is sentenced to life Telegraph 11.10.18

AND YET THE NEWSPAPER STILL REFERS TO HIM AS ‘SHE’ THROUGHOUT!

England 2018: Trans woman, 41, pretended to be a boy to groom a girl Metro 1.10.18

England 2018: Rapist transgender woman found guilty despite calling new abuse case ‘b*****ks’ Metro 08.09.18

England 2018 Transgender person accused of rape is remanded into female prison and sexually assaults inmates within days Telegraph 06.09.18

2018 USA: Man Hides Past as Child Rapist by Becoming Transgender, Changing Name: Allison (née Dennis) Woolbert Women are Human 02.06.18

Canada 2018: Transgender convict gets 10 years for 2 sex assaults, declared dangerous offender CBC News 22.05.18

2018 Scotland: Convicted paedophile starts secret new life as a woman Scottish Sun

2018 England: Transgender activist jailed for killing her boyfriend and trying to rape shop assistant five days after being released from prison is invited to speak at HOUSE OF LORDS Daily Mail

2018 England Convicted sex offender Lana Laws, avoids jail after breaching order Kent Online

2017 England Woman posed as teenage girl on Facebook to entice young boys to perform sex acts The Mirror

2017 England:  ‘Pure evil’ monster and his transgender lover locked up for life Coventry Telegraph

See also: Transgender murderer, 23, is moved back to all-male jail after ‘romping with a naked female inmate weeks after being moved to women’s prison’ Mail 

2017 USA Transgender woman is convicted of sexually assaulting a 10-year-old girl Daily Mail Note: This story is basically true but it did not happen in a public bathroom as originally reported.

2017 New Zealand: HIV positive child sex offender paroled, takes on new identity NZ Herald

2016 England: Transgender paedophile jailed for attacking girls and boys is caught getting photos of one victim ‘blown-up’ bigger The Mirror

2016 England: Transgender woman David aka Davina Ayrton jailed for raping teenager BBC

2016 England: Female transsexual walks free from court despite admitting child sex offences committed when she was a man Mirror

2017 England Woman sentenced for images of child sex abuse and possession of extreme pornography Somerset Live

2017 England Woman caught with extreme animal porn celebrates as she walks free from court Liverpool Echo

A twitter conversation reveals why this bloke was called a ‘woman’, here.

2016 USA Transgender Woman Pleads Guilty to Videotaping Teen In Target Dressing Room East Idaho News

England 2018 Transgender inmate of male prison ‘prepared to die’ in hunger strike Guardian

“Marie Dean, 50, is being held at HMP Preston, Lancashire, where she is protesting over what she claims is a “nightmare” refusal of the Ministry of Justice to recognise she is a woman.”

Dean was jailed indefinitely in 2009, according to this report in the Lancashire Herald.

“Gary Dean Marie, 42, committed more than 30 offences, including voyeurism, aggravated burglary and assaulting police officers, a court heard yesterday. Marie, of Lubbock Street, Burnley, was a sexual offender who broke into several homes and filmed himself wearing underwear belonging to teenage girls in Burnley and Padiham, Preston Crown Court was told.”

See also: The Marie Dean story shows there’s no simple answer to how we treat transgender prisoners Sarah Ditum

USA 2017:  Registered Sex Offender Gets Prison for Raping 15-Year-Old USA News

 

Video: Women Decide For Yourselves

Most of the men whose crimes are described in this video identified as trans. Here is a list:
Thomas Lee Benson: ID unknown, dressed as a woman to enter women’s locker rooms
Taylor Buehler: ID unknown, dressed as a woman to enter women’s bathroom
Lila Perry: IDs as Trans
James “Jimmy” Lilly: IDs as Trans
Norwood Smith Burnes: ID unknown, dressed as a women to expose himself to children
Michelle-Lael Norsworthy: IDs as Trans
Patrick/Patty Lou Hagan: IDs as Trans
Mario Morales-Herrera: ID unknown, dressed as a woman to spy in women’s bathroom
Albert/Dee Dee Webber: IDs as Trans
Mark Lazarus: ID unknown, dressed as a woman to assault a woman in a public bathroom
“Jane Doe”: IDs as Trans
Christopher Hambrook: ID unknown, dressed as a woman to enter two women’s shelter and sexually assaulted women.
Matthew Harks: IDs as Trans
Richard Chaperon: IDs as Trans
Claire Lawton and Peter/Tanya Steel: both ID as Trans
Luis Morales/Synthia Blast: IDs as Trans
Dennis Wayne/Allison Denise Woolbert: IDs as Trans
Stefonknee Wolscht: IDs as Trans
Douglas/ Donna Perry: IDs as Trans
Hadden Clark: IDs as Trans
Robert/Michelle Kosilek: IDs as Trans
Russell Williams: ID unknown
Jillyin James: IDs as Trans

 

Murder and manslaughter

New Zealand 2019: Dimetrius Pairama, 17, tortured and murdered in Auckland by transgender woman and man WARNING: Extremely upsetting details.

 

USA 2018: Media Blackout on Dana Rivers “Michfest” Murder Trial GenderTrending 13.08.19

“In November 2016, David Warfield/Dana Rivers went on to brutally batter, then stab, shoot, and burn two women who were long time Michfest attendees and their adopted son. David/Dana was charged with stabbing, shooting, and beating Patricia Wright and Charlotte Reed and their son Benny.”

 

USA 2019: Cambron sentenced to prison for killing of boy in Cherokee Park 21.06.19

“The judge agreed to write his judgment addressing Cambron as female.

“I’m using feminine pronouns, because that’s who Joe thinks she is,” Circuit Court Judge Charles Cunningham said. “And I have no reason to question that.””

 

USA 2019: Local child killer changes gender while on death row 14.03.19

“DESERT HOT SPRINGS, Calif. – Documents just filed in Marin County, California show Jason Michael Hann is now known as Jessica Marie Hann, and is now a female “to match my gender identity.”

On Feb. 21, 2014, an Indio judge sentenced then 40-year-old Jason Hann to death for killing his 10-month-old daughter, named Montana, in 2001.  At the time, Hann and Montana’s mother, Krissy Lynn Werntz, now 39, were living in Desert Hot Springs.”

 

USA 2018: Maine teen says struggles with gender identity led to him brutally stabbing his parents Newsweek 06.12.18

“A teenager who said she killed her parents and the family’s pet dog because of struggles with her gender identity has been sentenced to 40 years in jail. Andrea Balcer was 17 at the time when she “snapped” and fatally stabbed her parents Alice and Antonio Balcer at their home in Winthrop, Maine, on October 31, 2016.”

 

USA 2018: Albuquerque transgender woman charged with murdering baby KOB4 10.12.18

“Court documents state Boniello admitted to punching, slapping, shaking and finally squeezing the baby until she was motionless.”

 

2018 USA Transgender teen to admit murdering parents who ‘refused to accept her transition’

“Andrea Balcer, 19, is set to plead guilty to plunging a hunting knife into her mom Alice’s back on the morning of Halloween 2016 at a hearing Wednesday afternoon. She will also admit killing father Antonio after he woke up to the sound of his wife’s screams, as well as the family’s pet chihuahua at their home in Winthrop, Me.”

 

2018 USA Transgender woman who surrendered after strangling friend, leaving body in bathtub, gets 18 years

“A homeless transgender woman, who strangled to death a man with whom she had a decade-long friendship after being invited to live in his Portland, Ore., apartment, was sentenced Thursday to 18 years in prison. Paris McConville, 35, pleaded guilty to one count each of first-degree manslaughter and second-degree assault in the August 2017 death of Ryan Thompson, 35, FOX12 Oregon reported.”

 

2018 USA Attempted murder: transgender Sharon woman admits to shooting co-worker in dispute of transgender issues

“A transgender woman admitted she shot her former Walmart co-worker in a dispute over transgender issues. Zachary T. McClimans, who also is referred to as Claire Wolfever in court records, pleaded guilty this week in Mercer County Court of Common Pleas to attempted first-degree murder for shooting and wounding Jayson Hall at the Walmart in Hermitage on Nov. 3, 2016.”

 

2017 USA Englewood neighbors shocked after woman murders her wife, confesses in 911 call

“The two women are both transgender and neighbors say they kept to themselves.”

 

2017 England Father-of-two was stabbed to death by transgender woman

“A father-of-two was stabbed to death with a kitchen knife in a crack cocaine-fuelled attack by a transgender woman, who later hanged herself in prison.”

 

2017 USA Murder suspect admits killing friend, moving body to bathtub in SW Portland

“Paris James McConville, 34, turned herself in to police and said she had killed a person in self-defense on the 700 block of Southwest St. Claire Avenue. The Multnomah County Jail lists McConville as a man, but court documents refer to her as a woman… McConville said she strangled Thompson during an altercation and later said she stabbed him, as well…McConville told investigators she killed Thompson by a bed, moved the body into a bath tub, took out the items Thompson was carrying and placed them into the sink and used a long strip of packing tape on Thompson’s hands.”

 

2017 Scotland Transgender murderer moved from women’s prison ‘after having sex with female inmates’

“Green, who was previously known as Peter Laing, had been accused of ‘inappropriate behaviour’ with inmates before. Following her murder conviction in 2013 she was moved out of Corton Vale women’s prison after the allegations. Green and her friends Kevin McDonagh and Dean Smith, were found guilty of murdering Robert Shankland, 45. They tortured him for hours before killing him. She was jailed for 18 years.”

 

2017 USA A stripper said he was a ‘cannibal,’ then killed him with a pen and a dresser drawer, police say (Warning: this is gruesome)

“Justin Tyler Calhoun, 24, listed in jail records as a female and homeless who works as a stripper in Tampa, Florida, was arrested for attempted second-degree murder after admitting to the attack, police spokeswoman Alyson Crean said. In the arrest affidavit, detectives refer to Calhoun with male pronouns. During her first appearance Tuesday in court, Calhoun rolled her eyes as the charges against her were being read aloud. She is being held without bond.”

 

2017 USA Woman arrested over violent triple murder of lesbian couple and adopted son (Dana Rivers)

“The woman who stands accused of their murder made headlines in 1999, when she was suspended from her teaching post at Center High School in Sacramento after discussing plans to undergo gender reassignment surgery.
Born David Warfield, the award-winning teacher had begun hormone therapy when she was accused of inappropriate discussions with her students about her transition. She was later awarded $150,000 from the district in compensation.” (It’s interesting that this reporter from Pink News sees nothing wrong with ‘deadnaming’ Rivers while Josh Jackman, writing on the same site, rails against those who do the same for Martin Ponting – see above).

 

2016 USA Transwoman Activist Cherno Biko confesses to Raping a Transman

“Transwoman activist Cherno Biko, a 24-year-old male from Ohio, confessed to raping a female “transman” because he wanted to impregnate her and force her to bear his offspring.”

 

2018 USA Judge orders Missouri to provide hormone therapy and hair removal to transgender killer who is serving life in prison

“A federal judge has ordered that the state of Missouri must provide a transgender killer serving a life sentence with hormone replacement therapy, hair removal treatment, and access to ‘gender-affirming’ canteen items. Jessica Hicklin, 38, is a preoperative transgender woman who was born James Hicklin and was convicted of fatally shooting a man in 1995 during a drug-related crime in Clinton, Missouri.”

 

2016 Scotland Fury as transgender killer is allowed to live as a woman on female only prison wing 

“The fiend was pursuing a sex swap when he knifed John at least 16 times at his flat in Bonhill, Dunbartonshire, in 2012. It came just hours after they met on a gay dating site. Baker was caged for a minimum of 19 years. He claimed to have acted in self defence but was convicted of murder and attempting to cover up his crime.”

Under Prison heading above, see “Row as transgender prisoner living as woman wins jail’s Miss Fitness competition by ‘country mile'” for more on this charmer.

See under Sex Crimes for Karen Jones, formerly Mark Jones.

 

USA 2000: Turning Tale Phoenix New Times 19.10.2000

“A transsexual who provided the most damning testimony in a sensational Phoenix murder case eight years ago against her lover, Patino, appearing at a 1997 videotaped deposition, tells a tale that belies her demure look and mannerisms.

In a two-hour interrogation, Patino calmly recounts how she planned and executed the murder of Trish Willoughby in Rocky Point, Mexico, on February 23, 1991.”

 

Assault

Transgender woman lashed out after police ‘didn’t use the proper pronouns’ 20.07.19

“Charlotte Blundell has racked up a string of fresh convictions to add to the criminal record she started under her old name, Justin. As Justin, the 26-year-old was jailed for dousing her ex in bleach and trying to torch him.”

 

She Said She Hated White People. Then She Attacked With Pepper SpraNY Times 11.03.19

“On Saturday, police arrested Thomas Heard, a 37-year-old from the Bronx who identifies as a transgender woman, and charged her with multiple hate-crime felonies and misdemeanors in connection with the two attacks.”

 

Australia 2019: Evie Amati sentenced to nine years’ prison for 7-Eleven axe attack 18.01.19

Evie Amati has been sentenced to nine years in prison for attempted murder after randomly attacking two people at a convenience store with an axe in inner-Sydney. The transgender woman was found guilty by a jury last August of two counts of wounding with intent to murder and one count of attempted wounding with intent to murder.

 

England 2018: Drunken transgender women stamp on defenceless teen in train station attack The Mirror 10.11.18

“Drunken transgender women viciously battered a teen in a “heinous attack” at a Tube station that was sparked over a “minor” row. Harrowing footage shows the group repeatedly stamping on the defenceless 19-year-old man as he lay on the floor at Leicester Square station in central London.”

 

2018 England: Violent yob, 41, who stabbed man will serve two-year sentence in all-women’s jail as he undergoes gender reassignment treatment

“A violent criminal who stabbed a man in the liver is to be sent to an all-women’s prison after a court heard she intends to undergo gender reassignment treatment. Stephen Mottershead, 41, who has a string of past criminal offenses, was arrested following the stabbing over a row about noise at an apartment block in Manchester.”

 

2018 England: Beautician locked up for attacking constable weeks after pushing another officer on to Tube track

“Bregazzi has 64 previous convictions and has been diagnosed with a histrionic personality disorder.”

 

2018 Scotland: Transgender prisoner branded one of Scotland’s most dangerous scalded in revenge for razor attack Daily Record

“A violent prisoner had boiling water thrown over her after she slashed another con. Transgender Tiffany Scott, previously Andrew Burns, needed treatment to serious injuries after the revenge attack at Edinburgh’s Saughton Prison. Minutes earlier the thug – one of Scotland’s most dangerous prisoners – had slashed a fellow convict with a razor blade during an argument over a mirror.”

2017 Scotland: Transgender Woman Pleads Guilty to Videotaping Teen In Target Dressing Room

“She has a string of conviction for crimes including assaults, vandalism and resisting arrests. In 2010, she assaulted a nurse when he escaped a hospital in Crewe, Cheshire. Four years ago, she also admitted stalking a 13-year-old girl by sending her letters from her cell at Polmont Prison, near Falkirk.”

 

2016 USA: Transgender women on trial in Franklin robbery

“Harry Wilkins, 22, and Carlos Martinez, 20, have been charged with second-degree robbery for allegedly stealing money from a cab driver near the Clarion Hotel in Franklin Township on Nov. 5, 2016. Somerset County County Assistant Prosecutor Anthony Parenti is arguing that Wilkins and Martinez wanted the taxi driver to drive them home to the Bronx in New York, but they allegedly sprayed the driver with pepper spray, threatened him with scissors, and took his money.”

 

Other crimes

Brighton hammer thief spared prison because she is trangender Brighton Argus 27.02.20

 

USA 2018: ‘LET’S TAKE IT OUTSIDE!’ Furious transgender woman threatens shop worker after he calls him ‘sir’ not ‘maam’ The Sun 28.12.18

THIS is the dramatic moment a furious transgender woman threatened a shop employee after he called her “sir” instead of “maam”.

Trouble flared when the blonde woman demanded her “f***ing” money back from the male worker behind the counter of the GameStop store in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

 

2018 USA Woman sentenced for throwing dog to its death off San Francisco parking garage

“Wakeen “LaLa” Best was found guilty of animal cruelty, auto burglary and vandalism.” NOT A WOMAN!

 

USA 2018: US Marshals are seeking transgender woman accused of keeping her two ‘feral’ daughters, ages 5 and 6, locked in a closet in dirty diapers and they don’t know how to talk Mail 31.10.18

US Marshals are on the hunt for a transgender mother accused of keeping her two young daughters in deplorable conditions at their home in Texas.

Aria Young, 31, who was born a man named Jacob O’Donnell but now identifies as a woman, faces charges of injury to a child. He fathered the children while still a man.

According to the US Marshals Service, Young kept her children, ages five and six, locked in a closet for hours at a time. Neither girl knew how to talk.

 

England 2018: Trans woman jailed for explosives offence wins legal right to change gender Independent 17.10.18

“A father-of-seven who lives as a woman and was jailed for possessing explosives has won the right to be recognised as female. The woman began formal action against Justice Secretary David Gauke in 2014, after a specialist panel said she did not satisfy the terms of the 2004 Gender Recognition Act and refused to approve her application.”

 

England 2018: Trans offender seeks to wipe crimes as a man from record Times 09.09.18

““I do not wish my gender history to be more widely known and do not wish to disclose my trans status to employers,” the woman, who asked to be identified only as Helen, said. She is to launch a judicial review to remove two convictions for “importuning as a man” when she worked at a Soho “clip joint” in the 1970s and 1980s.”

 

Screenshots of stories from elsewhere

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Page updated: 18.03.20